Each of these four categories of exegesis is discerned based on literary cues within the texts of the Tanakh. In fact, the first step of studying our holy books is to discern each and every textual detail. Textual anomalies (such as oversized letters, undersized letters, backward letters, etc.) and apparent inconsistencies are not accidental or the result of scribal errors, but are considered sacred to the text itself. Therefore, once discovered, they must be explained. This is the starting point of all our textual exegesis.
Moreover, in the Jewish tradition each of the levels has their own reasoning procedures specific to that level. For example, there are 13 general rules of interpretation for reasoning on the Derash level (Rabbi Yishmael's rules).
Note that according to some within Rabbinical Judaism, PaRDes stands for:
- P'shat - the 24 Books of the Written Torah.
- Remez - the Six Orders of the Mishnah, the Oral Torah.
- D'rash - the Talmud and the Shulkhan Arukh, the source of Jewish Law.
- Sod - the Zohar of the Kabbalah, the secret of mystical tradition.
Why 70 faces to the Torah?